Oil is formed from the remains of prehistoric sea creatures millions of years ago. When they die, their bodies sink and are buried under the sediment. The silt bed gradually changed into a lithosphere. The pressure of the lithosphere and the action of bacteria have turned the remains into thick oil. In geology, the formation that is capable of producing petroleum must have six conditions: "generation, circle, cover, storage, transportation and preservation". Then, which strata are likely to contain oil/gas? In geology, there is an important term: sandstone! Please remember this term. The counterpart of sandstone is called mudstone.
Oil is deep in the ground. How can we find out where it is?
1. Geologists will analyze the geological structure, whether it is Marine sedimentary, etc.
2. Conduct seismic exploration and find out the sand/mudstone bed of this block. This work is mainly done by the geophysical exploration department, such as the famous shengli geophysical exploration, or XX geophysical research institute. Seismic exploration is to make seismic waves manually and determine the formation structure by receiving seismic waves reflected from the strata, so as to analyze whether there are conditions for oil production and storage underground.
The simple process is as follows:
A first determines the location of the excited seismic waves and the received seismic waves according to the design.
It takes a lot of careful work to implement the design from the drawing to the field. The error is calculated in centimeters.
The good news is that there is now a GPS system, much better than measuring with a theodolite.
B drill several or dozens of "Wells" 30 to 50 meters deep in a certain combination and bury explosives.
This is drilling in the taklamakan desert
The desert is spectacular
There's also oil in the mountains. But exploring the mountains is harder. The rig should also be split up and carried up to the mountain one by one. This is some iron knot in one's heart, again stupid heavy, the mountain is steep, carelessly troublesome.
Use the rope.
Be careful, be strong.
In special places, such as the gobi desert, it is not possible to drill Wells, and seismic waves can be excited by controllable seismic sources. The same principle as tamping.
C. Embedded geophone receiving seismic waves according to the designed position and combination mode.
These are the geophones that the explorers carried up the mountain.
This is a senior expert. Good luck, masterful strategy wins thousands of miles.
E. High performance computer (galaxy, nebula, etc.) was used to calculate the propagation speed of seismic waves in the stratum, so as to analyze the stratum and determine the sand/mudstone depth.
This is a geological cross - section. The red line is the fault, and the T's are the strata.
Because our work was done at the last step, what remained was the work of geologists. As for the latter drilling, oil production, logging and so on, all from other sources, not necessarily accurate.
Let's talk about the prospectors. The oil industry is hard. The drilling team is famous for having a wang jinxi. The whole country thinks that the drilling workers are oil workers. Right, wrong. By contrast, the exploration team is much more difficult than the drilling team. Because the exploration team's working environment is a very inaccessible place, basically undeveloped. Wait for the exploration team to find the oil, at least have eyes, the drilling team just came. Now look at the expedition.
There is no road on the desert beach or in the desert.
3. The processing data of geophysical exploration is transferred to a special research institute for analysis and research. After analysis and research, the research institute designs the drilling plan of the target block, and then the drilling team starts drilling.
4 drilling crew began drilling. Of course, the drilling crew will be at the destination drill Wells 1, 2, known as the preliminary exploratory well, the purpose is to (1) to determine geological layers in this block, specialized noun: such as yan 'an group, group, or majiagou group, taiyuan group such as geological stratification, (2) whether purpose blocks containing oil/gas, if contain, its abundance, permeability, etc.
If the preexploration Wells in this block show that this block contains oil and gas, this block will soon enter a large-scale oil and gas exploitation stage, the most obvious feature of which is that many Wells have been drilled.
About drilling, there are a lot of people impression of oilfield exploration and development is the drilling, in fact, drilling, is just a small steps in the process of oilfield development. Well drilling, oilfield development is the most hard, and the most tiring. The well-known iron man wang jinxi is drilling workers. Only has the international advanced level in developing oil field in China is drilling, drilling crew because our country also horizontal Wells, branch Wells. To be honest, drilling is no technical content.
When the well is drilled, it is time to log.
5 Logging into the completion, three logging, perforation, production logging, etc. The above said to the drilling crew well play well, the logging to measure. The purpose of well logging, (1) drilling crew the Wells is comply with the design requirements, such as hole deviation, horizontal section, etc. (2) in the evaluation of formation oil/gas, (3) if any, the horizon of how many, how much depth, which layer a mining value. These are completion logging. Ready to explain, explain what good mining horizon, drilling crew will casing, cementing. Then log begins to measure three: both sound waves, gamma, magnetic positioning. Mainly judgment under the drilling crew Whether the casing and cement are sufficient or not, and whether the cementation is good or not. After the three samples are measured, the borehole shall be perforated by the well logging, and the casing and cement shall be blasted with special blasting projectiles (perforating projectiles), so that the oil in the formation can flow into the casing for mining.
6 at this time, the underground operation was conducted to fracturing the strata, expanding the perforation gap, so that the oil could flow into the casing more quickly.
When the fracturing is over, the team comes to install the oil recovery machine, commonly known as the kowtow or tap machine, at which point the oil is extracted, and you can see the real oil.
In the whole process of oil exploitation, only geophysical exploration and logging have certain technical content, and the rest do not require any technical content. Geophysical exploration and logging technology, our country has lagged behind foreign advanced technology for at least 10 years!